Emotional intelligence is
defined as the ability to recognise personal emotions, as well as the emotions
of those in the world around you. Considered to be a skill pivotal to
understanding and communicating with others, emotional intelligence acts as a
guide to human thinking and behavioural patterns.
There are three defined models
of emotional intelligence. These are as follows:
The Ability Model
Developed by Peter Salovey and
John Mayer, the ability model focuses on the individual’s ability to process
emotional information and use this to navigate their social intelligence.
The Trait Model
The Trait Model was defined by
Konstantin Vasily Petrides and encompasses behavioural dispositions and
self-perceived abilities. The Trait Model is measured through self report.
The Mixed Model
Using a combination of both the
ability and trait model, The Mixed Model was defined by one of the foremost
names in the field of emotional intelligence, Daniel Goleman.
HUMINT Intelligence has
embraced these theories. Gathering intelligence by means of interpersonal
contact, using attachès, espionage and Covert Human Intelligence Sources (CHIS)
in the field, HUMINT (Human Intelligence) intelligence has proven to be very
NATO defines HUMINT
intelligence as, ‘a category of intelligence derived from information collected
and provided by human sources.’ Activities conducted by HUMINT intelligence
operatives include interrogations and conversations with assets in the field.
Within the context of the
military establishment most HUMINT activities doesn’t include clandestine
activities. This is the same for counter intelligence activities.
Why HUMINT Intelligence is Paramount
HUMINT Intelligence can provide
several different types of information. From observations throughout events or
travelling excursions provided by POW’s, refugees and individuals that have
escaped captivity and are known as friendly to supplying vital information
based on specific knowledge of an event that’s about to occur or another
person’s activities, beliefs or intentions, HUMINT Intelligence activities can
provide information on interpersonal relationships and networks of interest.
HUMINT Intelligence fulfils two
separate intelligence values – both counter intelligence and intelligence
collection. Any interviews collected should balance any known information
requirements with both intelligence collection guidance and the requirements of
Cultures and Intelligence Preparation
Cultural intelligence draws
heavily on social sciences. The more notable social sciences that bare a direct
correlation with HUMINT Intelligence are psychology, sociology, criminology and
The CIA professional journal
recognises two aspects of cultural study, relevant to HUMINT. Drawing on The
Arab Mind by Raphael Patai, Lloyd F. Jordan describes the first group of
scientific analyses of culture and character as beginning with cultural
anthropology that began as early as the 1920’s.
He stated, ‘it was precisely
the inaccessibility of the target country and the availability of fragmentary
information concerning national character research that was deemed to be
relevant to intelligence needed for the war effort.’
‘anthropologists, aided by psychiatrists and combined with psychoanalytic and
interaction theory, child development and learning theory used anthropological
research methods to construct models of contemporary cultures of enemy
countries throughout wartime.’
The second class of studies had
a narrower focus. These studies concentrated on the relationship of personality
traits to individual subsets of any given society or the category of rules
given by an individual society, as opposed to the identification of
relationships between personality and the social structure as a whole.
Interviews and Interrogation
Interviews between the subject
and the interrogator are considered to be far more effective when they take a
more therapeutic approach. An extended interview dynamics will take the form of
transference and counter transference. Throughout transference interviews the
subject projects his own experiences onto the interrogator. Throughout the
counter transference interview the interrogator will begin to take on the
mindset of the subject by considering their personal experiences,
These forms of interview have
proven to reap solid rewards. They require an exceptionally high level of
emotional understanding on behalf of the interviewer to gather the information
Interrogations take on a
different tone. An interrogation is not necessarily conducted in a co-operative
sense but one of obtaining vital information from the subject at all costs. The
subject may be permitted to leave at the conclusion of the interview but,
obtaining information as a matter of urgency is often the circumstances at
which interrogations take place.
Conducting an interrogation is
a skilled technique – one that involves building a rapport with the subject.
Having a comprehensive understanding of HUMINT Intelligence is paramount.
Interrogators are trained specialists, though on occasion they will be required
to work with interpreters.
One of the principal
requirements is that the interrogator must take and maintain the initiative.
For this reason, interrogators need not be overly harsh. Indeed, Haans Scharff,
considered the most successful German WW2 interrogator, and who shaped all US
interrogations after the war, used a variety of techniques to gain a subjects
trust. These included portraying himself as the closest allay that the subject
had, offering to share an alcoholic drink or cup of tea, and telling jokes.
The interrogation process is a
collection of HUMINT theories. At the conclusion of the interrogation the
interrogator will cross check the statements and checks any notes that have
been made in order that the report contains and identifies the information as
it unfolded throughout the interview.
As we can see, it is absolutely
paramount for HUMINT Intelligence to be utilised in military situations. When
in the field, successful deployment of HUMINT Intelligence can be pivotal in
the fight against the enemy, save lives and prevent devastating attacks.